Though there is no archeological evidence remaining, there was probably a church on the site long before the current basilica was built. The basilica sits inside and ancient Roman Castrum (a military defensive position) and near an ancient religious shrine dedicated to Jupiter.
Unfortunately, during the French Revolution, the town's religious institutions were dissolved in 1798 and many of the church treasures were lost. The church and cloisters were used as a blacksmith shop and stables by the military garrison. This continued until 1837 when the church was restored to religious practice.
Since most of the medieval furnishings were lost after the French Revolution, the current Baroque altars and furnishings were taken from former churches during the restoration of the basilica. All the stained glass is from the 19th and 20th century.
In 1903 it was placed in the Gothic chapel near the main entrance where it remains today and where it is visited daily by hundreds of worshipers. The statue is paraded through the streets of Maastricht during religious holidays.