The church is a lovely example of the Baroque style in Poland. It was funded by King Sigismund III Vasa and built for the Jesuit order between 1597–1619. Several architects worked on the church during its construction. The plan as a cruciform basilica was originally drafted by Italian architect Giovanni de Rossi. His design was initially carried out by Józef Britius and later modified by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni
The present day façade constructed from dolomite, the dome, and the Baroque interior were designed by Giovanni Battista Trevano, who completed them in the years 1605–1619.
The enclosing railings with the twelve limestone figures of the Apostles were originally installed in 1715-22. Today, in place of the original 18th century statues, which were damaged by acid rain, are contemporary copies made by Kazimierz Jęczmyk.
The high altar was designed by Kacper Bazanka in 1735 featuring Józef Brodowski’s painting "Presentation of Keys to St. Peter" (c.1820).
On the sides of the altar, there are sculpted throne compositions supported by statues of the Doctors of the Church and crowned with paintings by Szymon Czechowicz symbolizing the Western and Eastern Church.
The two octagonal looking towers, with the doubled arcade windows are perfect examples and characteristic of Romanesque architecture. The Baroque domes topping the towers were added in 1639.
The baroque decoration of the interior, with its rich exuberant stucco decoration is by Italian painter and architect Baldassare "Baltazar" Fontana (c. 1700) and the high altar is attributed to Francesco Placidi.